研究队伍
中科院院士
学科组负责人
百千万人才
杰出青年科学基金
优秀青年科学基金
万人计划
中青年科技创新领军人才
云南省高层人才
研究所青年人才
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研究队伍 -- 分子进化与基因组多样性研究组
  张亚平    研究员;中国科学院院士;第三世界科学院院士
职  务: 中国科学院副院长
学  历: 理学博士
电  话: +86 871 65130513
传  真: +86 871 65130513
电子邮件: zhangyp@mail.kiz.ac.cn
通讯地址: 云南省昆明市教场东路32号    650223
其他主页: http://159.226.149.45/zhang
 
  简  历

  博士,研究员,中国科学院院士,发展中国家科学院院士。现任中国科学院副院长、昆明动物研究所“遗传资源与进化”国家重点实验室学术委员会主任和分子进化与基因组多样性学科组负责人;兼任中国遗传学会理事长、中国动物学会副理事长,国际重要刊物Genome Biol Evol 副主编、Anim GenetSci RepJ Hered 编委。推动了国际生命条形码计划和国际“千犬基因组计划”。同时通过推动中国科学院西南家猪分子育种基地的建设将畜禽进化基因组的研究成果应用于家猪分子育种实践并进行产业转化与推广。

  在建立具有国际影响的人群和动物DNA库的基础上,主要从分子水平研究生物多样性的演化及机制,澄清了灵长类、食肉类、两栖爬行类等动物类群系统与演化中的一些重要问题。揭示了东亚人群进化的一些规律和一些民族的演化历程。系统地研究了野生动物和家养动物的遗传多样性,发现遗传多样性贫乏与物种濒危之间没有必然的对应关系;确定了家犬的东亚起源,证明东亚是家养动物驯化的重要区域。对自然选择和人工选择作用下基因组进化的研究,揭示了一些重要的动物适应进化和畜禽经济性状形成的遗传机制。5年来,在ScienceNaturePNASPLos Genetics等国际刊物发表SCI文章150余篇。先后获国家自然科学二等奖、长江学者成就一等奖、云南省科技突出贡献奖、何梁何利基金科学与技术进步奖等国家和省部级科技奖励20余项。由于在生物多样性研究领域的突出贡献,获国际重要奖项“生物多样性领导奖”,成为亚洲地区唯一的获奖人。

  

  研究方向

  近五年来,结合基因组学的发展,从基因组水平系统研究关键区域人群和重要家养动物和野生动物的自然选择和人工选择的遗传机制。

  1、家养动物起源驯化与人工选择的基因组进化机制

  家养动物是人类社会发展到特定阶段的产物,阐明家养动物的起源驯化历史,在基因组水平上揭示人工驯化的遗传机制,不仅可为未来畜禽中新品种的培育奠定科学基础,而且对了解人类进化的历史也有重要意义。

  2、动物适应性进化的遗传机制

  生物进化就是生物不断适应环境的过程,其遗传机制是生物学上的基本问题。我们主要围绕能量代谢、信息感受与传导等探讨动物适应其生态位的遗传机制。

  3、人和动物高原适应的分子机制

  青藏高原是研究高原适应的天然实验室,我们采用比较基因组学研究策略,通过比较这一关键地区处于不同适应阶段的人群、家养动物和野生动物等不同类群高原适应机制的异同,以及同一类群在世界不同高原地区的适应机制,揭示高原适应的普遍规律。

  4、基因组多样性与亚洲人群的演化

  了解自身的进化历程是人类不断探索的问题。我们在基因组水平研究现代人走出非洲之后的迁移历史及其对环境适应的遗传机

  承担科研项目

1973项目“中国-喜马拉雅地区生物多样性演变与保护研究”

2NFSC重大项目“动物DNA条形码基因和隐存多样性的研究”

3NFSC创新群体项目“基因组中新遗传结构的起源与动物的适应进化”

4NFSC 面上项目“家犬在人工选择下的高原适应机制研究”

5NFSC 重大研究计划集成项目“家犬在人工选择下的微进化研究”

6.农业部转基因重大专项

 “基于人工选择作用分析克隆鉴定重要功能基因”

 “猪、牛、羊肌肉生长和脂肪沉积性状重要育种价值基因的克隆及其功能验证”

7.中国科学院战略先导专项

  子课题“猪脂肪沉积等优质高产分子模块解析”

  子课题“西南分子育种基地的完善与能力提升”

  子课题“青藏高原家养动物适应性状的解析”

  子课题“驯化动植物对高寒环境的适应及基因资源利用”

  专家类别
中国科学院院士,发展中国家科学院院士,国家杰出青年科学基金获得者,(新世纪)百千万人才工程国家级人选, 享受国务院政府特殊津贴专家,省、部级有突出贡献专家
  社会任职

中国遗传学会副理事长 

中国动物学会副理事长 

  获奖及荣誉

国际奖

2002 美国“The Bay Foundation and the Josephine Bay and C. Michael Paul

Foundation”的“生物多样性领导奖”(Biodiversity Leadership Awards

国内奖

1994 全国青年科技标兵

1996 云南省自然科学一等奖(猕猴属的分子进化研究)

1996 第三届中国青年科学家奖

1997 国家自然科学三等奖(中国若干特有珍稀动物类群的细胞与分子进化研究)

2001 云南省自然科学一等奖(滇金丝猴生物学研究)

2004 中国青年五四奖章

2004 生命科学创新奖(全球华人生物科学家大会)

2004 何梁何利基金科学与技术进步奖

2005 云南省科学技术突出贡献奖

2005 云南省自然科学一等奖(线粒体基因组多样性与东亚人群历史的研究)

2006 国家自然科学二等奖(线粒体基因组多样性与东亚人群历史的研究)

2006 长江学者成就一等奖

2009 第二届谈家桢生命科学成就奖

2010 云南省自然科学一等奖(真兽类若干类群的分子系统学研究)

2013 云南省自然科学特等奖(基因组多样性与亚洲人群的演化)

2013 云南省自然科学一等奖(动物适应性进化的分子机制)

2014 国家自然科学奖二等奖(基因组多样性与亚洲人群的演化)

  代表论著

1.     Liu YH, Wang L, Xu T, Guo XM, Li Y, Yin TT, Yang HC, Hu Y, Adeola AC, Sanke OJ, Otecko NO, Wang M, Ma YP, Charles OS, Sinding MHS, Gopalakrishnan S, Samaniego JA, Hansen AJ, Fernandes C, Gaubert P, Budd J, Dawuda PM, Rueness EK, Jiang LB, Zhai WW, Gilbert MTP, Peng MS, Xiaopeng Qi XP*, Wang GD*, ZhangYP*. Whole-genome sequencing of African dogs provides insights into adaptations against tropical parasites. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2018, 35: 287-298.  IF14.558

2.     Wang MS, Otecko NO, Wang S, Wu DD, Yang MM, Xu Y, Murphy RW, Peng MS*, Zhang YP*. An evolutionary genomic perspective on the breeding of dwarf chickens. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2017, 34:3081-3088. IF14.558

3.     Wang MS, Zeng Y, Wang X, Nie WH, Wang JH, Su WT, Otecko NO, Xiong ZJ, Wang S, Qu KX, Yan SQ, Yang MM, Wang W, Dong Y*, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis. Giga science,  2017, 6(11):1-7. IF10.644

4.     Zeng L, Ming C, Li Y, Su LY, Su YH, Otecko NO, Liu HQ, Wang MS, Yao YG, Li HP, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Rapid evolution of genes involved in learning and energy metabolism for domestication of the laboratory rat. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2017, 34:3148-3153.  IF14.558

5.     Zeng L, Ming C, Li Y, Su LY, Su YH, Otecko NO, Dalecky A, Donnellan S, Aplin K, Liu XH, Song Y, Zhang ZB, Esmailizadeh A, Sohrabi SS, Nanaei HA, Liu HQ,Wang MS, Atteynine SA, Rocamora G, Brescia F, Morand S, Irwin DM, Peng MS, Yao YG, Li HP*, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Out of southern East Asia of the brown rat revealed by large scale genome sequencing. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2017, doi:10.1093/molbev/msx276. IF14.558

6.     Li Y, Wang MS, Otecko NO, Wang W, Shi P, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Hypoxia potentially promotes Tibetan longevity. Cell Research, 2017, 27(2):302-305.  IF12.393

7.     Yu L*, Wang GD, Ruan J, Chen YB, Yang CP, Cao X, Wu H, Liu YH, Du ZL, Wang XP, Yang J, Cheng SC, Zhong L, Wang L, Wang X, Hu JY, Fang L, Bai B, Wang KL, Yuan N, Wu SF, Li BG, Zhang JG, Yang YQ, Zhang CL, Long YC, Li HS, Yang JY, Irwin DM, Ryder OA, Li Y, Wu CI*, Zhang YP*. Genomic analysis of snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus) identifies genes and processes related to high-altitude adaptation. Nature Genetics. 2016, 48:947.

8.     Li HP, Xiang-Yu JG, Dai GY, Gu ZL, Ming C, Yang ZF, Ryder OA, Li WH*, Fu YX*, Zhang YP*. Large numbers of vertebrates began rapid population decline in the late 19th century. PNAS. 2016, 113:14079-14084.

9.     Shen QK, Sulaiman X, Yao YG, Peng MS*, Zhang YP*. Was ADH1B under Selection in European Populations? Am J Hum Genet. 2016, 99:1217-1219.

10.   Wang GD, Zhai WW, Yang HC, Wang L,  Zhong L, Liu YH, Fan RX, Yin TT, Zhu CL, Poyarkov AD, Irwin DM, Hytonen MK, Lohi H, Wu CI, Savolainen P, and Zhang YP*. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world. Cell Research. 2016,26:21-33.

11.   Wang GD, Peng MS, Yang HC, Savolainen P, Zhang YP*. Questioning the evidence for a Central Asian domestication origin of dogs. PNAS. 2016, 113:E2554-E2555.

12.   Wang MS, Zhang RW, Su LY, Li Y, Peng MS, Liu HQ, Zeng L, Irwin DM, Du JL, Yao YG, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Positive selection rather than relaxation of functional constraint drives the evolution of vision during chicken domestication. Cell Research. 2016, 26: 556-573.

13.   Wang MS, Huo YX, Li Y, Otecko NO, Su LY, Xu HB, Wu SF, Peng MS, Liu HQ, Zeng L, Irwin DM, Yao YG, Wu DD*,  Zhang YP*. Comparative population genomics reveals genetic basis underlying body size of domestic chickens. J Mol Cell Biol. 2016, 8(6):542-552.

14.   Wang GD, Zhai WW, Yang HC, Wang L, Zhong L, Liu YH, Fan RX, Yin TT, Zhu CL, Poyarkov AD, Irwin DM, Hyt?nen MK, Hannes Lohi H, Wu CI, Savolainen P*, Zhang YP*. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world. Cell Research, 2016, 26:21-33.

15.   Wang MS, Li Y, Peng MS, Zhong L, Wang ZJ, Li QY, Tu XL, Dong Y, Zhu CL, Wang L, Yang MM, Wu SF, Miao YW, Liu JP, Irwin DM, Wang W, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Genomic analyses reveal potential independent adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan chickens. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2015, 32:1880-1889.

16.   Peng MS, Shi NN, Yao YG, Zhang YP*. Caveats about interpretation of ancient chicken mtDNAs from northern China. PNAS, 2015, 112:E1970-E1971.

17.   Peng MS, Fan L, Shi NN, Ning T, Yao YG, Murphy RW, Wang WZ*, Zhang YP*. DomeTree: a canonical toolkit for mitochondrial DNA analyses in domesticated animals. Molecular Ecology Resources, 2015, 15:1238-1242.

18.   Bai B, Zhao WM, Tang BX, Wang YQ, Wang L, Zhang Z, Yang HC, Liu YH, Zhu JW, Irwin DM, Wang GD*, Zhang YP*. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database. Nucleic Acids Research, 2015, 43:D777-D783.

19.   Liu HQ, Wei JK, Li B, Wang MS, Wu RQ, Rizak JD, Zhong L, Wang L, Xu FQ, Shen YY*, Hu XT*, Zhang YP*. Divergence of dim-light vision among bats (order: Chiroptera) as estimated by molecular and electrophysiological methods. Scientific Reports, 2015, 5.

20.   Shao Y, Li JX, Ge RL, Zhong L, Irwin DM, Murphy RW, Zhang YP*. Genetic adaptations of the plateau zokor in high-elevation burrows. Scientific Reports, 2015, 5.

21.   Zhou ZY, Li AM, Wang LG, Irwin DM, Liu YH, Xu D, Han XM, Wang L, Wu SF, Wang LX*, Xie HB*, Zhang YP*. DNA methylation signatures of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in porcine adipose and  muscle tissues. Scientific Reports, 2015, 5.

22.   Ge RL, Cai QL, Shen YY, Murphy RW, Wang J, Zhang YP*, Wang J*. Draft genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope. Nature Communications, 2013, 4.

23.   He L, Wu WJ, Yang JK, Cheng H, Zuo XB, Lai W, Gao TW, Ma CL, Luo N, Huang JQ, Lu FY, Liu YQ, Huang YJ, Lu QJ, Zhang HL, Wang L, Wang WZ, Wang MM, Xiao SX, Sun Q, Li CY, Bai YP, Li H, Zhou ZC, Zhou FS, Chen G, Liang B, Qi J, Yang XY, Yang T, Zheng X, Sun LD, Zhang XJ, and Zhang YP*. Two new susceptibility loci 1q24.2 and 11p11.2 confer risk to severe acne. Nature Communications 2014, 5.

24.   Li Y, Wang GD, Wang MS, Irwin DM, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Domestication of the Dog from the Wolf Was Promoted by Enhanced Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity: A Hypothesis. Genome Biology and Evolution, 2014, 6:3115-3121.

25.   Li Y, vonHoldt BM, Reynolds A, Boyko AR, Wayne RK, Wu DD*, Zhang YP*. Artificial selection on brain-expressed genes during the domestication of dog. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2013,30(8):1867-76.

26.   Li Y, Wu DD, Boyko AR, Wang GD, Wu SF, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*. Population Variation Revealed High-Altitude Adaptation of Tibetan Mastiffs. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2014, 31(5):1200–1205.

27.   Liu J, Wang XP, Cho S, Lim BK, Irwin DM, Ryder OA, Zhang YP*, Yu L*. Evolutionary and Functional Novelty of Pancreatic Ribonuclease: a Study of Musteloidea (order Carnivora). Scientific Reports, 2014, 4.

28.   Luo J, Gao Y, Ma W, Bi XY, Wang SY, Wang J, Wang YQ, Chai J, Du R, Wu SF, Meyer A, Zan RG, Xiao H, Murphy RW, Zhang YP*. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). Heredity, 2014, 112:415-427.

29.   Shi NN, Fan L, Yao YG, Peng MS*, Zhang YP*. Mitochondrial genomes of domestic animals need scrutiny. Molecular Ecology, 2014, 23:5393-5397.

30.   Wang GD, Xie HB, Peng MS, Irwin D, and Zhang YP*. Domestication Genomics: Evidence from Animals. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, 2014,2:65-84.

31.   Wang GD, Zhai WW, Yang HC, Fan RX, Cao X, Zhong L, Wang L, Liu F, Gao Y, Lv XM, Irwin DM, Savolainen P, Wu CI*, Zhang YP*. The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans. Nature Communications, 2013,4:1860.

32.   Zhou ZY, Li AM, Adeola AC, Liu YH, Irwin DM, Xie HB*, Zhang YP*. Genome-Wide Identification of Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA Genes and Their Potential Association with Domestication in Pigs. Genome Biology and Evolution, 2014, 6:1387-1392.

33.   Li JT, Li Y, Klaus S, Rao DQ, Hillis DM, Zhang YP*: Diversification of rhacophorid frogs provides evidence for accelerated faunal exchange between India and Eurasia during the Oligocene. PNAS, 2013, 110(9): 3441-3446.

34.   Murphy RW, Crawford AJ, Bauer AM, Che J, Donnellan SC, Fritz U, Haddad CFB, Nagy ZT, Poyarkov NA, Vences M, Wang WZ, Zhang YP*: Cold code: the global initiative to DNA barcode amphibians and nonavian reptiles. Molecular Ecology Resources 2013, 13(2): 161-167.

35.   Yan F, Zhou WW, Zhao HT, Yuan ZY, Wang YY, Jiang K, Jin JQ, Murphy RW, Che J*, Zhang YP*. Geological events play a larger role than Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in the genetic structure of the montane stream-dwelling frog Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae) in southern China. Molecular Ecology 2013, 22: 1120–1133.

36.   Che J, Chen HM, Yang JX, Jin JQ, Jiang K, Yuan ZY, Murphy RW, Zhang YP*: Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians. Molecular Ecology Resources 2012, 12(2): 247-258.

37.   Chen R, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*: Differences in selection drive olfactory receptor genes in different directions in dogs and wolf. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2012, 29(11): 3475-3484.

38.   Ji LD, Qiu YQ, Xu J, Irwin DM, Tam SC, Tang NL, Zhang YP*: Genetic adaptation of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway to oxygen pressure among Eurasian human populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2012, 29(11): 3359-3370.

39.   Jin W, Wu DD, Zhang X, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*: Positive selection on the gene RNASEL: correlation between patterns of evolution and function. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2012, 29(10): 3161-3168.

40.   Shen YY, Liang L, Li GS, Murphy RW, Zhang YP*: Parallel evolution of auditory genes for echolocation in bats and toothed whales. PloS Genetics 2012, 8(6): e1002788.

41.   Zhou WW, Wen Y, Fu JZ, Xu YB, Jin JQ, Ding L, Min MS, Che J, Zhang YP*: Speciation in the Ranachensinensis species complex and its relationship to the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Molecular Ecology 2012, 21(4): 960-973.

42.   Gao JJ, Pan XR, Hu J, Ma L, Wu JM, Shao YL, Barton SA, Woodruff RC, Zhang YP*, Fu YX: Highly variable recessive lethal or nearly lethal mutation rates during germ-line development of male Drosophila melanogaster. PNAS, 2011, 108(38): 15914-15919.

43.   Kong QP, Sun C, Wang HW, Zhao MA, Wang WZ, Zhong L, Hao XD, Pan H, Wang SY, Cheng YT, Zhu CL, Wu SF, Liu LN, Jin JQ, Yao YG, Zhang YP*: Large-scale mtDNA screening reveals a surprising matrilineal complexity in East Asia and its implications to the peopling of the region. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2011, 28(1): 513-522.

44.   Sun YB, Shen YY, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*: Evaluating the roles of energetic functional constraints on teleost mitochondrial-encoded protein evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2011, 28(1): 39-44.

45.   Wu DD, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*. De novo origin of human protein-coding genes. PloS Genetics 2011, 7(11): e1002379

46.   Yu L, Luan PT, Jin W, Ryder OA, Chemnick LG, Davis HA, Zhang YP*: Phylogenetic utility of nuclear introns in interfamilial relationships of Caniformia (Order Carnivora). Systematic Biology 2011, 60(2):175-187.

47.   Bawa KS, Koh LP, Lee TM, Liu JG, Ramakrishnan PS, Yu DW, Zhang YP, Raven PH: China, India, and the environment. Science 2010, 327(5972): 1457-1459.

48.   Che J, Zhou WW, Hu JS, Yan F, Papenfuss TJ, Wake DB, Zhang YP*: Spiny frogs (Paini) illuminate the history of the Himalayan region and Southeast Asia. PNAS, 2010, 107(31): 13765-13770.

49.   Peng MS, Quang HH, Dang KP, Trieu AV, Wang HW, Yao YG, Kong QP, Zhang YP*: Tracing the Austronesian footprint in Mainland Southeast Asia: a perspective from mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2010, 27(10):2417-2430.

50.   Shen YY, Liang L, Zhu ZH, Zhou WP, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*: Adaptive evolution of energy metabolism genes and the origin of flight in bats. PNAS2010, 107(19): 8666-8671.

51.   Wu DD, Zhang YP*: Positive selection drives population differentiation in the skeletal genes in modern humans. Human Molecular Genetics 2010, 19(12): 2341-2346.

52.   Yu L, Jin W, Wang JX, Zhang X, Chen MM, Zhu ZH, Lee H, Lee M, Zhang YP*: Characterization of TRPC2, an essential genetic component of VNS chemoreception, provides insights into the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in secondary-adapted marine mammals. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2010, 27(7): 1467-1477.

53.   Yu L, Wang XY, Jin W, Luan PT, Ting N, Zhang YP*: Adaptive evolution of digestive RNASE1 genes in leaf-eating monkeys revisited: new insights from ten additional colobines. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2010, 27(1): 121-131.

54.   Zhang DR, Chen MY, Murphy RW, Che J, Pang JF, Hu JS, Luo J, Wu SJ, Ye H, Zhang YP*: Genealogy and palaeodrainage basins in Yunnan Province: phylogeography of the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis (Dicroglossidae). Molecular Ecology 2010, 19(16): 3406-3420.

55.   Zhong L, Zhang YP, Fu WP, Dai LM, Sun C, Wang YQ: The Relationship between GSTP1 I105V polymorphism and COPD: a reappraisal. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010, 181(7): 763-765

56.   Pang JF, Kluetsch C, Zou XJ, Zhang AB, Luo LY, Angleby H, Ardalan A, Ekstrom C, Skollermo A, Lundeberg J,Matsumura S, Leitner T, Zhang YP*, Savolainen P: mtDNA data indicate a single origin for dogs South of Yangtze River, less than 16,300 years ago, from numerous wolves. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2009, 26(12): 2849-2864.

57.   Shen YY, Shi P, Sun YB, Zhang YP*: Relaxation of selective constraints on avian mitochondrial DNA following the degeneration of flight ability. Genome Research 2009, 19(10): 1760-1765.

58.   Wu DD, Wang GD, Irwin DM, Zhang YP*. A profound role for the expansion of trypsin-like serine protease family in the evolution of hematophagy in mosquito. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2009, 26(10): 2333-2341.

59.   Zhao M, Kong QP, Wang HW, Peng MS, Xie XD, Wang WZ, Jiayang, Duan JG, Cai MC, Zhao SN, Cidanpingcuo, Tu YQ, Wu SF, Yao YG, Bandelt HJ, Zhang YP*: Mitochondrial genome evidence reveals successful Late Paleolithic settlement on the Tibetan Plateau. PNAS2009, 106(50): 21230-21235.

  研究团队

研究人员

  博士 研究员级工程师

王国栋 博士 研究员

彭旻晟 博士 副研究员

谢海兵 博士 助理研究员

刘鹤群 博士 助理研究员

周中银 博士 助理研究员

Dr. Adeniyi C. Adeola, Assistant Prof

吴世芳 高级实验师

朱春玲 实验师

研究生

  黄翠萍 尹婷婷       

马云飞  王运梅 吕梦蝶     沈全宽

李建波  黎武略 胡靖杨     耿伟航

           许明敏

  周其俊 戴珊珊     周博闻

伍胤桥  张湘泉  

Otecko Newton Otieno    Saber Khederzadeh     

Felista Kasyoka Kilunda   Hadi Charati 

Said Ismail Nganga       David H Mauki